Topic: History of India - Ancient India.
Timeline: 2800 BCE - 1800 BCE
In this episode, we learn how Indus Valley Civilization came into being. After the invention of canals to channel the water from river streams, dependency on rains reduced and the tribes were not required to settle near river beds. Agriculture got further revolutionized with the usage of domesticated animals for ploughing. All these advancements led to a surplus which enabled prosperity and trading. This also gave way to new occupations like pottery, brick making, irrigation, tool making, etc.
All this led to the evolution of law & order, social hierarchy, urbanization, trade, art & literature and currency along with demarcation of domination. This marked the onset of Indus Valley Civilization in the subcontinent, with power hubs like Harappa, Mohenjo daro, Mehrgadh, Lothal, Kalibangan & Dholavira.
Excavation of these sites, tell us that these were all planned cities with row houses, roads & closed drainage. Great Bath for religious purification, assembly halls, granaries, brick making furnaces, wells, graves, dockyards were also found. The unearthing of terracotta toys, metal statues and weapons, precious stone ornaments, weights, cotton clothing, coins, seals and stone inscriptions, indicate that the life here was good and prosperous. But then it all ended because of flooding, droughts, earthquakes in the Indus plains region and the people were forced to migrate towards the Gangetic plains.